Milli Istihbarat Teskilati (MIT) (National Intelligence Organization)
|The effort to establish an intelligence
organization that would function in a systematic and organized manner were
started during the last years of the Ottoman Empire. In that period, in order to
preserve the political unity, to prevent the separatist activities, and
particularly to follow the activities of the foreign nations mostly focused on
the Middle East, the need had emerged to give a centralized and organized nature
to the intelligence activities, then being carried out on an individual and
limited basis. The first intelligence organization was established on August 05,
1914 by Enver Pasha under the name of TESKILAT-I MAHSUSA (Special Organization).
That organization, which had undertaken important missions and had carried out
military and paramilitary activities during the First World War, was dissolved
at the end of the war, following the Mondros Truce of October 30, 1918In the
period that followed the Mondros Truce, a new intelligence unit was formed in
late 1918 under the name of KARAKOL CEMIYETI (Police Guild). This new
organization carried out many important missions during the National Liberation
War through providing arms to people and to small armed groups for fighting
against the occupation forces in Anatolia, and also through providing supplies
and equipment to the national forces. When Istanbul was occupied on March 16,
1920, the activities of that organization had come to an end with the arrest of
its members. After the dissolution of the KARAKOL CEMIYETI, various
intelligence groups were formed. One of these groups, namely the HAMZA GRUBU (Hamza
Group), which was established on September 23, 1920, changed its name to FELAH
GRUBU (Felah Group) on August 21, 1921, and continued its activities until the
end of the National Liberation War. ASKERI POLIS TESKILATI (Military Police Organization-
shortly called as A.P. or P) was founded by the Turkish General Staff on July
18, 1920 with the aim of putting an end to the chaos prevailing among the
different intelligence organizations and countering the enemy's espionage
activities and propaganda infiltrating the army ranks. Later, as a result of the
need felt for a unit to collect information, "The Intelligence Branch"
was formed. This organization, which had carried out successful missions during
the war, was dissolved on March 19, 1921.
The vacuum that arose in the intelligence activities with the dissolution of the Askeri Polis Teskilaty, was filled in a short time with the establishment of TEDKIK HEYETI AMIRLIKLERI (Inspection Board Directorates) again by the Turkish General Staff in various Anatolian provinces during the period between April 01, 1921- June 22, 1922. Later, in the light of the previous experiences and with the aim of reaching the newly established objectives, another intelligence group named MUDAFAA-I MILLIYE (National Defense) was founded, this time under the instructions of Mustafa Kemal. On May 03, 1921, the Turkish Grand National Assembly officially approved the establishment of that organization, which was called shortly as "MIM MIM". While the TEDKIK HEYETI AMIRLIKLERI were carrying out their activities in Anatolia, the "MIM MIM" achieved to establish in Istanbul an extensive network of spies and intelligence consisting of a large cadre of military and civilian officers. The MIM conducted very important duties during the National Liberation War, like organizing the activities to secretly transfer weapons and ammunitions to Anatolia, and infiltrating the enemy headquarters, foreign missions, and groups collaborating with the enemy to get important information and documents. This organization, which also maintained cooperation during the war with other groups established to collect information about the enemy, was dissolved on October 05, 1923, following the liberation of Istanbul. During the period which followed the dissolution of intelligence organizations and foundation of the Republic of Turkey, the intelligence activities had been carried out until the year 1926 by the intelligence unit within the Turkish General StaffAt the beginning of 1926, Ataturk had given the order for the establishment of a modern intelligence organization having the same standards with those in the developed countries. Colonel Oberst Walter Nikolai, a Polish originated officer who had guided Germany's intelligence activities during the World War I, was called on to undertake that duty. With the participation of the cadre that had been trained in European countries, and under the official order (January 06, 1927) of Field Marshal Fevzi CAKMAK, Chief of General Staff, the first intelligence organization of the Republic of Turkey was established under the name of MILLI EMNIYET HIZMETI- MAH (National Security Service).
MAH, which had undergone during its history some small-scale structural changes in consistent with the emerging needs, had successfully conducted Turkey's intelligence activities until the year 1965. With a view to have the intelligence to be collected on every subject relevant to the formulation of the State's national security policy gathered at one center, the Turkish Grand National Assembly passed on July 22, 1965 the law 644, under which the name of the organization was changed as the MILLI ISTIHBARAT TESKILATI- MIT (National Intelligence Organization). The same law also provided for the control of the organization by an Undersecretary that would be subordinate only to the Prime Minister in the fulfilment of duties defined under the law. The MIT had carried out its duties for about 19 years under the provisions of Law 644. However, the rapidly changing conditions and new developments had brought the need for new legal arrangements. To that end, on November 01, 1983 Law 2937 on the State Intelligence Services and the National Intelligence Organization was passed. This law was put into effect as of January 01, 1984. The MIT, which has a modern structural organization and closely follows every kind of technological developments that would help the achievement of national objectives, and its experienced professional and technical staff is successfully fulfilling its duties defined under the law in a manner firmly devoted to the principles of pluralist democracy, supremacy of law, impartiality and human rights. The historical information presented above was prepared through a study of various books written about the war of national liberation, and some open sources. However, studies have already been started to prepare a much more detailed historical survey of our Organization, to be based on the documents kept in our own archives as well as the State archives. This historical study will be completed and released to the public opinion on the 75th Anniversary of the establishment of the MIT.
Turkish Special Forces
The 1st Commando Brigade is based out of Kayseri, Turkey. They have recently been deployed to various areas in the Southeast Anatolia region to battle against separatist terrorists. During these battles this brigade earned itself the "Distinguished Courage Medal of the Turkish Armed Forces", the second time it has done so since 1974.
The 2nd Commando Brigade is based out of Bolu, Turkey. They also were deployed to the South Eastern Anatolia region to fight terrorism. In addition to the 1st Brigade, they were awarded the "Distinguished Courage Medal of the Turkish Armed Forces" as well for their efforts.
The Amphibious Marine Brigade is based in Foca/Izmir. Their main mission is probably infiltration and sabotage/intelligence gathering behind enemy lines. Possible target targets in time of war would be island airfield and communications centers.
The Turkish military has no special operations aircraft per se, but there are UH-60 Blackhawks and AS-90 (I think)Cougar helicopters that are optimised for CSAR (Combat Search And Rescue) missions; these could easily be used for covert insertion extraction.
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