The primary objective of the ROC's defence policy is to defend Taiwan, the Pescadores, Kinmen, and Matsu. This entails establishing a fighting force of sufficient readiness to guard the nation and protect its people. The direct and most serious threat to the ROC's national security remains the unwillingness of Peking to renounce the use of military force against Taiwan. Thus, while ROC national defence strategy calls for balanced development of the three Armed Forces, naval and air supremacy receive first priority. In addition to current defensive preparations, a long-term policy of developing an elite fighting force and self-sufficiency in defence technology is also being strictly followed. This calls for restructuring the Armed Forces, streamlining command levels, renovating logistical systems, merging or reassigning military schools and upper-ranking staff units, as well as reducing the total number of men in uniform. The defence budget for the ROC military has been reduced annually during the past decade and has become more and more open to public scrutiny. The downward trend in ROC military expenditures was especially evident in fiscal 1994, when the budget shrank 4.65 percent. The defence budget is becoming increasingly public. In fiscal 1996, only 36 percent of the budget was considered confidential, in comparison to 51 percent in fiscal 1993 and 46 percent in 1994, respectively. The defence budget for fiscal 1996 will occupy just under 23 percent of the total government budget, down from 24.5 percent of the previous year. The thinking behind changes to the ROC's Armed Forces over the past few years reflects a shift from equal stress on offence and defence to assuring defence. This strategic principle, as implemented under the Ten-Year Troop Reduction Plan , has led to a targeted force of less than 400,000 troops by the year 2003 and an increase in the ratio of combat troops to overall military manpower.
The allocation of resources among the three services will give priority to air superiority and control of the seas in defensive operations, as well as to coastal defence. Accordingly, a ten-year program is to be implemented in three phases, including the development of a practicable table of organization for the three services to facilitate training and carry out peacetime missions, elimination of overlapping staff units in the three major services, and consolidation of the General Staff Headquarters of the Ministry of National Defence (MND) and the general headquarters of the three services, transferring non-military tasks to organizations outside the MND. Second-generation weapon systems used by the three armed services are also being actively updated. These include the inception of four E-2T air defence warning systems, the formation of the first Ching-kuo indigenous defence fighter (IDF) squadron, the commissioning of the Cheng-kung and Knox-class missile frigates, and taking delivery of a second batch of AH-1W attack helicopters and OH-58D reconnaissance helicopters.
Ministry of National Defence
|Article 36 of the ROC Constitution
stipulates that the president of the republic "shall have supreme
command of the land, sea and air forces of the whole country," and
Article 3 of the Organic Law of the Executive Yuan states that "the
Executive Yuan shall establish (among others) a Ministry of National Defence." According to the Organization Law of the MND , the
ministry shall be in charge of the defence affairs of the whole country,
and the minister shall be a civilian. Within the Ministry of National Defence
General Staff Headquarters (GSH), under which are the various services,
including the Army, Navy, Air Force, Combined Services Forces, Armed
Forces Reserve Command/Coast Guard Command, and Military Police Command.
In charge of military affairs, the GSH is headed by a chief of the
general staff, who acts, in the military command system, as chief of
staff to the president for operational matters; while in the
administrative system, he serves as chief of staff to the minister of
national defence. The Ministry of National Defence is responsible
for formulating military strategy, setting military personnel policies,
devising draft and mobilization plans, delineating supply distribution
policies, arranging for the research and development of military
technology, compiling data for the national defence budget, setting
military regulations, conducting court martial proceedings and
administering military law. The ministry itself has a Minister's Office
; Departments of Manpower , Materials , and Law ; a Bureau of the
Comptroller , and the Judge Advocates Bureau .
General Staff Headquarters, MND: In charge of the planning and supervision of joint war activities, political warfare, personnel, military intelligence, operations, education and training, logistics, organization and equipment calibration, communications, military archives management, and medical services, the General Staff Headquarters, MND contains the Office of the Chief of the General Staff; the Department of Supervision and Inspection; the General Political Warfare Department; Offices of the Deputy Chiefs of the General Staff for Personnel, Intelligence, Operations, Logistics, and Planning; the Bureau of Communications and Electronics; the Military History and Translation Bureau; the Military Medical Bureau; and the General Affairs Bureau.
Combined Services Force General Headquarters: The Combined Services Force General Headquarters is in charge of ordinance, military maps, and communication equipment for the ROC Armed Forces. It also provides support and services commonly needed by all Armed Forces services, such as finance, surveying, engineering, rear echelon administration, purchase and procurement, and armament appraisal and testing.
Armed Forces Reserve Command: Shortly after the ROC government announced the lifting of the Emergency Decree and the termination of the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion , the Taiwan Garrison General Headquarters (TGGH) was deactivated, and two new commands were created to assume partial responsibility for tasks formerly performed by the TGGH: the Armed Forces Reserve Command (AFRC), which is mainly in charge of reservist management and mobilization affairs; and the Coast Guard Command (CGC), responsible for matters of coastal security.Officers in the ROC military generally come from three backgrounds. They might be graduates of military academies who become career officers, graduates of different specialized military schools who serve shorter terms of duty, or college graduates who have passed a written test to become reserve officers. Approximately 15 percent of the officers commissioned each year are graduates from different military academies; another 45 percent are graduates of specialized military schools; and the remaining 40 percent are reserve officers. The ratio of officers to NCOs is currently 1:2.4, while that to enlisted men is 1:2.6. Thus, the ratio of officers to soldiers as a whole in the ROC Armed Forces is around 1:5, which is close to the 1:6 ratio of the US Armed Forces, and almost equals that of the Japanese Self-Defence Force (1:4.98).
NCOs constitute the backbone of basic units of the Armed Forces, and are increasingly depended upon to train troops and develop their combat performance. In recent years, however, most senior NCOs have retired, leaving the current proportion of career NCOs too low and the percentage of NCO reservists in service too high. Reservists are on active duty for a very limited period of time, making it difficult for them to keep up with changes in the operation and maintenance of ever-more sophisticated weapons and equipment. Solutions to this problem lie in reconfiguring the NCO organizational structure and recruiting new NCOs.
The Military Service Law of the ROC stipulates that all males in the Republic of China shall fulfil military service. Article 3 of the law states: "Male persons shall be liable for military service on January 1 of the year immediately following the year during which they reach the age of 18, and shall no longer be drafted for service beginning on December 31 of the year during which they reach the age of 45." Citizens who have been sentenced to imprisonment for longer than seven years are prohibited from entering the military. Under the Military Service Law, military conscription is administered jointly by the Ministry of National Defence and the Ministry of the Interior . The former is responsible for securing an adequate number of conscripts and training them, while the latter determines the sources of the conscripts and ensures their rights and benefits. Generally, conscripts undergo a minimum of two months of basic training before receiving their 22-month unit assignments. Male senior high, vocational high, and college students whose studies would be interrupted by military conscription can defer their induction until after graduation. Students who are admitted to a university or college undergo two months of basic training in the summer before their freshman year. Upon graduation, they re-enter the military to fulfil the remainder of their two-year commitment. Young men in poor health are exempt from military conscription. Those in average health may serve in the National Guard . Draftees from impoverished families may apply for service in this unit, giving them reserve status and allowing them to stay with their families. In addition, the only son of parents who are over seventy may also apply for National Guard service to fulfil his military obligation.
The ROC defence strategy calls for maintaining a minimum force in peacetime and mobilizing a large number of troops in the event of war. The reservist system plays a key role in such a policy by facilitating instantaneous mobilization and instant combat readiness. At present, registered reservists in the ROC amount to about 3.8 million persons, or more than 18 percent of the general population. After a man is discharged from active duty, he must report to his local military reserve unit, a subunit under the Armed Forces Reserve Command. Reservists are organized into different units according to their military occupational specialty (MOS). Since a prolonged mobilization recall might adversely affect both the livelihood of a reservist and the overall economic development of the country, annual reservist training is usually conducted through recalls. An MOS refresher training course is conducted, and each reservist is notified of his unit combat mission and relative location.
Research and development of national defence technology is often in direct proportion to the degree of a nation's industrialization. While the ROC industrial sector has made considerable progress over the past decade, most of it has in fact been confined to machining components and light manufacturing. The MND has long made use of the National Defence Industrial Development Fund to assist public and private enterprises in cultivating qualified technical personnel and purchasing facilities, transferring advanced technology, and developing a more sophisticated production base that one day promises a fully self-reliant defence industry. The MND has issued the Defence Science and Technology Development Plan to strengthen cooperation between the academic and industrial sectors, and has, along with several cabinet-level institutions such as the National Science Council , the Ministry of Education , and the Ministry of Economic Affairs , set up the Executive Committee for the Development of Defence Science and Technology (ECDDST). With its two subdivisions, the Academic Cooperation Group and the Industrial Cooperation Group , the ECDDST taps academic resources for researching defence technology and makes use of the industrial sector to develop and manufacture weaponry and armaments.
As the leading institution for the research, development, and design of defence technology in the ROC, the Chungshan Institute of Science and Technology (CIST) contains some 6,000 scientists and more than 8,000 technicians. With its headquarters in Lungt'an , Taoyuan County, the CIST has facilities stretching over nearly 6,000 acres scattered throughout Taiwan, and is divided into four major research divisions: aeronautics, missiles and rockets, electronics, and chemistry. The CIST has six centres for systems development, systems maintenance, quality assurance, materials R&D, aeronautic development, and missile manufacturing. Each research division or research centre has a director in charge of the research and development of its specialty, while planning units have project chairmen responsible for R&D program management and system integration. The CIST jointly conducts independent research and development of weapon systems with the Aero Industry Development Centre , which is now under CIST supervision; some manufacturing units of the Combined Services Force; academic institutions; and public and civilian industries. To date, a number of weapon systems have been domestically designed, tested, and produced on a mass scale by the CIST. These include the Kung-feng 6A rocket, the Hsiung-feng I and Hsiung-feng II SAMs, artillery fire control systems, naval sonar systems, naval electronic warfare systems, and the Tzu-chiang trainer aircraft . The CIST has produced or plans to produce Tien-kung I and Tien-kung II SAMs, and Tien-chien AAMs. The institute is also developing the Tien-chien II AAM system. To date, the first squadron of 20 prototype IDF fighters has been completed and turned over to the ROC Air Force. A proposal to privatise the Aero Industry Development Centre was approved by the Legislature on May 16, 1995. This conversion from military to private status, under the supervision of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, is intended to facilitate the transfer of ROC military aeronautic know-how to the private sector while enabling the centre to form joint ventures with high-tech foreign manufacturers. This in turn is expected to bring advanced aviation technology into Taiwan to accelerate the growth of the nation's aerospace industry. A period of three-and-a-half years has been granted to the centre to carry out full privatisation.
Taiwan Air Force Military Police Command
|The Military Police guard military and certain governmental installations, enforce military law, maintain military discipline, support combat troops, and serve as supplementary police when necessary to maintain public security. The Military Police have five sub-commands and one training centre. The Military Police Command has a Department of Political Warfare and offices of Personnel, Intelligence, Police Affairs, Logistics, Planning, Comptroller, Judge Advocates, and General Affairs.|
National Security Bureau
|The National Security Bureau was
established on March 1, 1955, falling directly under the National Defence
Council (NDC). In 1967 the National Security Council (NSC) was
set up to replace the NDC, and the NSB became a subsidiary organ under
the NSC. The National Security Bureau put police and the re-organized
secret peace-keeping intelligence agencies under its control. Under the
National Security Bureau's command, there were: (1) administrative
organizations such as Police Administration Office, Bureau of Exit and
Entry Control, Investigation Bureau of Justice Department; (2) military
agencies such as Taiwan Garrison Command Headquarters, General Political
Combat Unit, Military Intelligence Bureau and Military Police
Headquarters; (3) KMT organizations such as Social Work Committee,
(Chinese) Mainland Manoeuvres Committee and Overseas Manoeuvres Committee,
among which directly affecting the daily life of the Taiwanese were
Police Administration Office, Bureau of Investigation, Garrison Command,
Military Police and Social Works Committee. The National Security Bureau was feared by the
people, like the police force in the Japanese occupation era. Its
headquarters, located at 110 Yangteh Boulevard of Yang Ming Mountain, a
suburb of Taipei, was referred to as the "Mystical 110", where
no visitor or reporter were admitted except taking pictures from outside
the gate. The successive bureau chiefs were exclusively military officer
in the rank of a general, and the bureau was nicknamed "Taiwan's
KGB" or "TKGB". On January 1, 1994, shortly after the
respective organic laws of the NSC and NSB were promulgated by the order
of the ROC President on December 30, 1993, the National Security Bureau
became a legal institution. Since its establishment, the NSB has striven to
perform its duties on the one hand, and on the other hand, to be
responsive to the changing demands of the society by adapting its line
of duties and setting up relevant regulations and systems. In 1994, the
organic law of the NSB was passed by the legislature, establishing the
NSB as a fully legalized organ of the government in charge of the
coordination of national security intelligence and special service
missions. Based on the guidelines of operating with strict adherence to
the law, remaining neutral in the execution of duties, and separating
intelligence collection from law enforcement, the NSB has mapped out a
blueprint for the future.
The NSB Organic Law is based on the principle of "separating intelligence functions from law enforcement." It authorizes the NSB to integrate and coordinate matters concerning national security intelligence work, set up a viable framework for national intelligence operations, as well as compile and evaluate strategic information that has a direct bearing on national security. The intelligence is forwarded to national policy-makers and other relevant authorities. Legally authorized law enforcement organs are charged with the maintenance of social order. The setting up and functioning of this mechanism fall in line with intelligence units in democratically advanced countries. In view of the unique features and actual requirements of intelligence work, several articles are stipulated in the NSB's Organic Law: The NSB is empowered to coordinate with competent authorities about providing needed cover to assist certain intelligence operations. Intelligence information and its sources shall be kept confidential, unless otherwise authorized by the NSB. The NSB's annual budget estimates shall be treated confidentially. In the wake of closed-door screening by legislators, the budget in question shall be concealed in those of other government agencies. It is the National Security Bureau's duty to keep abreast with the latest developments in the international community, mainland China, and Taiwan, so as to safeguard the stability and prosperity of Taiwan and fulfil its responsibilities of collecting and assessing intelligence of strategic importance to national security. As stipulated by the NSB's Organic Law, the Bureau is authorized to integrate, coordinate and support national security-related intelligence operations conducted by various functional organizations within the intelligence and law enforcement community.
In addition to managing intelligence relevant to national security, it also takes charge of planning special tasks and is responsible for guiding, coordinating, and supporting the intelligence affairs of the Military Intelligence Bureau of the National Defence Ministry, the Telecommunications Development Division, the Coastal Defence Headquarters, the Military Police Headquarters, the National Police Administration of the Interior Ministry, and the Investigation Bureau of the Justice Ministry. This is also a special feature of the NSB since martial law was lifted. As result of institutionalising operations, the NSB now has six divisions - divisions in charge of international intelligence, intelligence about mainland China, intelligence relevant to Taiwan's security, analysis of the nation's strategic intelligence, scientific and technological intelligence and telecommunications security, and control and development of secret codes and facilities.
The NSB also runs the Coordination Meeting for National Security Intelligence (CMNSI) through concerted efforts with other related branches of the government so as to integrate intelligence resources and assets. According to Article 2 and 17 of the Organic Law of the NSB, the NSB is authorized to convene CMNSI to integrate, counsel, coordinate and support the overall security intelligence efforts for national security and development. The Meeting is presided over by the Director General of the NSB and attended by heads of the concerned intelligence and law enforcement agencies, while individuals from other related organizations will attend the Meeting upon invitation if deemed necessary. The CMNSI is in charge of planning, coordinating, and providing support for the nation's overall intelligence efforts targeting national security. Structurally, the CMNSI is divided into four functional coordination meetings: Coordination Meeting for International Operations (SMIO), Coordination Meeting for Operations in Mainland China (CMOMC), Coordination Meeting for Operations in the Taiwan Region (CMOTR), Coordination Meeting for the Collection of Technological Intelligence (CMCTI).
As stipulated in the NSB Organic Law, the NSB is charged with the duty of working in conjunction with relevant agencies to ensure the safety of the President, Vice President, their family, former Presidents and other specified persons, including candidates of presidential and vice presidential elections from the deadline of the registration date to the day after voting. Staff members at the NSB Special Service Command Centre need to keep in mind the importance of maintaining safety while adopting a citizen-friendly attitude at all times. Special agents need to exercise wisdom and courage when striking a balance between the two. Wisdom refers to the integration of memory, comprehension, adaptability, judgement and creativity. Courage calls for perseverance and sacrifice. Both qualities need to be cultivated through education, training and management of everyday life.
National Police Administration
|The police force in Taiwan is divided into the national and local levels. They are both under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Interior through the National Police Administration. Taiwan has a unified or centralized police system that is very different from the United State's localized or decentralized police system. The police functions in Taiwan are clearly defined in the Police Act as follows: 1) to maintain public order, 2) to protect social security, 3) to prevent all dangers, and 4) to promote the welfare of all people. The police are responsible for enforcing the law and maintaining public order but are also responsible for crime prevention and the protection of the lives and property of others. They are also assigned particular duties which are not practiced in many countries. These include, 1) management of exit from and entry into Taiwan; the police handle immigrations affairs, 2) civil defence and disaster rescue, 3) fire prevention and fire fighting, 4) order maintenance and riot control, 5) assistance for other government affairs whenever necessary. There were 75,517 police officers in 1990. There were 20,025 directly under the jurisdiction of the National police administration; 12,277 under the jurisdiction of Taipei and Kaoshong City; and 43,215 under the jurisdiction of Taiwan Province.|
|The Ministry of Justice
Investigation Bureau [MJIB] is a governmental, judicial, investigation
agency that takes the responsibilities of "Safeguarding National
Security; Maintaining Social Stability and Protecting the People's
Well-being". In accordance with the Article No. 2 of "The
MJIB's Organizational Ordinance, ROC", this bureau is responsible
for the investigation on violations against national security and
interests, and matters concerning internal security. In 1947, the Constitution of ROC was
promulgated and put into effect. Then in 1949, the "Investigation
Bureau of the Ministry of Interior" was established in Kuanchew to
complete and strengthen what is an integral part of law enforcement in a
constitutional government. That was the beginning of MJIB. It was the
first government investigation agency ever legalized in this country.
Mr. Ji Yuan-Fo was assigned to be the first Director General, and in
Dec. of the same year the Bureau was relocated along with ROC government
to Taipei, Taiwan. Another reorganization took place on June 1st, 1956.
At that time the Bureau was renamed the "Investigation Bureau of
Ministry of Judicial Administration". Afterwards the Bureau started
to take up major investigation & internal security issues concerning
national safety and violation against national interests. In the wake of
the 1955 transformation, Mr. Ji was retained at the head office. On
August 1st, 1980, owing to the renewal the R.O.C.'s judicial systems,
the Bureau was given its present, permanent title, "MJIB". Since October 30, 1998, the MJIB function has
been redefined, by an Executive Yuan decree, in the following nine items
that cover crime-prevention and investigation: Sedition, Treason, Unauthorized disclosure of national secrets,
Corruption and bribery during election, Drug trafficking, Organized crime,
Major economic crime and money laundering, National affairs, Other matters relating to national security and
interests, specifically assigned by superior government authorities.
MJIB conducts investigations on information indicating potential espionage & its activities and how it may affect political stability, financial order and social peace. It gather intelligence on the transforming and developing of local partisans and factions that adversely affect administration and provincialism, as well as the state of "peace & order" during elections, in which vote-buying and violence are singled out. It monitors high-profile movements, including unlawful gathering or parades, major petitions, complaints illegal, demonstrations or contingencies that affect peace and order. Investigations conducted on racketeers, concealed weapons among triads, smuggling & drug-trafficking and triad supporters. Maintaining internal security is one of the major functions of MJIB. Maintaining national secrets is the equivalent of safeguarding national security. In pursuance to the "Organization Provision of MJIB", the Bureau is responsible for investigation and internal security involving the offences of treason, sedition and other violations endangering national security interests. In other words, to safeguard national security is of primary importance and this is followed by maintaining national interests, and protecting the people's well-being are among the rest of the functions of the Bureau. Counter-espionage and infiltration are the cornerstone for security and stability. Indications and evidence obtained from intelligence and past cases of this Bureau verify that enemy espionage agents on certain occasions have sneaked into Taiwan island under legal, as well as other illegal covers. They are suspected of various methods of information collection, prowling, stealing technology, disrupting economic and social order. In this regard, the Bureau makes an effort, besides a full grasp of general situations, in planning and placing tactile preparations to dig out clues for effective countermeasures. In dealing with enemy espionage, all-out support and participation are called for from various sectors of society. The ROC government passed rudimentary legislation of opium-related offences of the "Criminal Code." Later on, in the reinforced legislations enacted to strengthen control, and to impose additional penalties upon drug-use and its spread the following laws were enacted: the "Ordinance of Eliminating Illicit Drugs"; the "Narcotics Control Statute." MJIB, pursuant to its duties mandated by law, has taken charge of the task of wiping out illicit drugs & narcotics.
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