Australian Agencies

Australian Secret Intelligence Service

ASIS is Australia's overseas intelligence collection agency. Its primary function is to obtain and distribute information, not readily available by other means, about the capabilities, intentions and activities of individuals or organisations outside Australia, which may impact on Australian interests and the well-being of its citizens.

ASIS tasks can include reporting on major defence, international relations or national economic issues as well as international efforts in support of peace-keeping and against threats from weapons proliferation.

ASIS is not a police or law enforcement agency. It is prohibited by law from planning for, or undertaking, paramilitary activities involving violence against the person or the use of weapons. ASIS may only perform functions as defined by the Intelligence Services Act 2001 as in the interests of Australia's national security, foreign relations or economic well-being. Under the Intelligence Services Act 2001, ASIS is responsible to the Government through the Minister for Foreign Affairs. The ASIS Director-General is directly responsible to the Minister. ASIS does not decide what intelligence it collects but acts only in response to priorities determined by other government agencies. These priorities are set within the framework of critical interests determined by Government. Key agencies involved in the setting of intelligence tasking for ASIS include the Office of National Assessments, the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the Department of Defence, and various agencies within the Defence portfolio. ASIS tasking is kept under ongoing review.

ASIS was formed in 1952 but the organisation was not publicly acknowledged until 1977. At that time the Prime Minister stated to Parliament that ASIS capacity to serve Australia's national interest will continue to depend on its activities being fully protected by secrecy. In carrying out its intelligence collection function ASIS relies on people who sometimes put their life and liberty at potential considerable risk and there is a clear obligation to protect their identity. In developing relationships with counterpart services, it is incumbent upon ASIS to protect the information foreign Governments share with it. Over time ASIS has been subject to a number of Government Reviews. These have concluded that ASIS is appropriate for Australia's needs and circumstances and that secrecy about operations and the people engaged in them is necessary and in the national interest.

ASIS expects from its staff high levels of integrity, discretion and security consciousness, reliability and resourcefulness. For those engaged in ASIS intelligence collection activities, strong interpersonal skills and an interest in and ability to relate to other people and cultures are highly desirable. As ASIS can be tasked to collect intelligence in a range of different environments, it needs people from a variety of backgrounds and academic disciplines. Those selected to work on intelligence collection activities can expect to undertake extensive and demanding training. They would also undertake a variety of deployments as required by ASIS to meet its responsibilities to the Australian Government. Rewarding employment is also available in a range of technical, information technology, administrative and security-related areas. All positions in ASIS are designated security assessment positions. To be eligible for employment in ASIS applicants must hold Australian citizenship

Special Air Service Regiment

The history of Australia's "Special Forces" can be traced as far back as the 1940s when Australian soldiers were part in AIB or Allied Intelligence Bureau. However it wasn't until July 25th 1957 when the Army turned to Major W. Gook, that a proper "Special Forces" unit was formed. Major Gook was put in charge of a new unit: the 1st Special Air Service Company (Royal Australian Regiment). The total strength of the Company was only180 men at first. On August 20th 1964 the SAS finally became a full Regiment consisting of three "Sabre" Squadrons, a Training Squadron, and a Headquarters. The SASR was modelled after the British SAS.

The SAS had previously worn a red beret (indicating them as a Parachute Company) with the Infantry Corps Cap Badge. In 1966, the SAS was given permission to change over to the beige beret. However since most of the SASR was deployed to Borneo at the time, all they could get were the British SAS berets with the cloth Winged Dagger emblem on them. Later on that year the cloth patch was replaced by a black flash and a solid gold metal Winged Dagger emblem on top of it.

The SASR was first deployed to Brunei in 1965. It was 1 Squadron and would also be the first to see active duty. Later on in that same year 1 Squadron would also be deployed to Borneo. The British had already been in Borneo for some time. The first request by the British Government for Australian SASR help was declined. However, as the "conflict" grew the SASR was brought in. The SASR was tasked with stopping the communist Indonesian troops from taking over Borneo. They often worked along side their British and New Zealand counterparts. The conflict of Borneo was a tough one for Australian troops. They soon found themselves living in the jungle, sometimes on patrols for months. They learned how to track the enemy, lay ambushes, and defeat him at his own games. This would prove effective again later in Vietnam. Another way the SASR defeated the enemy was to win the "heats and minds" of locals. The local tribesmen would usually help in any way they could, and the SASR provided needed repairs, medical treatments, and food for the villagers. This was to prove very affective. The main threat came from a group known as RPKAD. The RPKAD were known for being extremely brutal. They wore a cap badge which depicted a set of Airborne Wings with a dagger through them. This is on top of an octagon. The RPKAD were usually noticed because of this cap badge. The RPKAD is the forerunner to today's KOPASSUS. The war lasted until 1966. Three SASR men died while on active service in Borneo, however none died from direct enemy contacts.

The SAS soon found themselves in action again. This time in Vietnam. 3 Squadron was the first squadron to be deployed to Vietnam. The SASR was sent in again to help the Americans fight off the communist government of North Vietnam from overtaking South Vietnam. The SASR once again began the long patrols deep into the think jungles. They lived like the enemy. The also started a "Hearts and Minds" campaign again. The SASR suffered the same types of problems as the Americans. The enemy hid amongst the civilians who were scared to turn them over. They did however use captured VC (Viet Cong) and NVA (North Vietnam Army Regulars) to help them locate the enemy. The SASR soon started operating with American SEAL (Sea-Air-Land) Teams and Special Forces. The SASR also helped with the American Recondo School and with MAC-V-SOG missions. The Recondo School was started in Australia, and the principals were passed on to the Americans. The Patrol Course the SASR runs today is similar to that of the Recondo School. The bond between the SASR and the different American Special Operations units is still strong today. The SASR fought this war in Vietnam until 1971. 4 SASR soldiers died during accidents, one died months later from gun shot wounds received, and one is still MIA (although now presumed dead).

In 1991 a small team of Australian SAS soldiers returned to Cambodia (an area where in the 1960s and 70s the SASR had operated in against them). It was a UN team sent in to help make peace between the Cambodian people. They did several other tasks such as mine clearing, guarding ancient monuments (which were favourite targets of the enemy), gave medical aid, made repairs, and other such tasks. The first group consisted of 8 SASR soldiers, more came later. SASR Soldiers also took part as observers in other parts of the world ranging from India to Lebanon to Sinai. These missions usually went without much action. Some SASR soldiers also signed up for the Rhodesian SAS (no longer in existence) during the mid 1970s. These men may have been on leave or may have already left the SASR but were still looking for action. Many were vets of the Borneo and Vietnam Wars. The Australian Government did not condone this.

The SASR was called up again 1994. They were being sent to Somalia, a small African country. It was called Operation Iguana. It was J Troop, 3 Squadron who was called. The men had several tasks: VIP protect, Provide Quick Response Teams, Foot Patrols, and Mobile Patrols (using Armed Personnel Carriers). These were just a few of their tasks. The men soon earned the nickname "Gerbils". During a Mobile Patrol, a group of Somali men raised their weapons at the patrol and took aim. Before they could squeeze the trigger a young trooper shot off a three round burst from his Minimi 5.56 Machine Gun and killed two instantly. This was the first "Official" kill since Vietnam.

In 1994 and 1995 the SASR was sent to Rwanda to help the UN. Their job was to provide medical aid to the sick and wounded. Thousands of refugees were seeking help. The skilled SASR medics soon proved their worth. They saved hundreds of lives. One man, Jon Church, stood out amongst them. He was a dedicated soldier and good medic. Sadly soon after returning to Australia he would die in the Blackhawk helicopter crash on June 12th 1996. The SASR is rumoured to have taken part in the 1991 Gulf War. It is known that several members were "attached" to 22 SAS. However rumours have surfaced that the SASR also acted independently. In 1998 110 members of the SASR and the NZ SAS were again called up when Saddam threatened more violence. They were deployed, but their roles are still a secret. The SASR suffered a hard blow in 1996. 1 Squadron was preparing for a CT exercise. They boarded two Blackhawk Helicopters. During the flight, the helicopter collided killing 15 members of the Regiment. These men died during training, training that was is as close to the real thing as it can be. These men died doing what they wanted to do. They died as members of the Special Air Service Regiment.

Most recently the SASR was deployed to East Timor (1999). The SASR is tasked with VIP Protection, LRRP jops, and manning Op posts. The main enemy in this conflict was the Indonesian Government, and more specifically the KOPASSUS. The KOPSASSUS are directly related to the RPKAD of the Borneo conflict. They have trained with the Australian SASR and the American Special Forces and SEALs. Now they are accused of horrible war crimes. The SASR was also responsible for surveying beaches with the Australian Clearance Divers. Two soldiers are also rumoured to have been wounded in a shoot out with several militia men.

SASR troops are actually on call up for the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney. The troops have been preparing for this since 1997. The soldiers have done full scale hostage rescue exercises among other things. Needless to say, if anything does happen; the SASR will be the first in. The SASR has been involved many other operations we may never know about. However they are their, behind the scenes. The SASR has, for many years, been involved in VIP Protection in Australia and abroad. Many of these operations go unnoticed but the SASR is there. Selection for the SASR was held on the Stirling Ranges. These were selected to test the students endurance and mental stamina. They shared many of the same qualities as the Brecon Beacons in Wales (home of British SAS Selection). The Stirling Ranges were used until 1990 when they were shut down by the Australian Government. An outbreak of Die Back, or "the Greenies", was the cause of this. Some of the climbing is still taught in the Stirling Ranges, but this must be monitored so that no one turns up sick. Selection for the SASR is tough. Fewer than 10% will ever make it. A new rule has been added recently, allowing members from every branch of the ADF (Australian Defence Force) to join the SAS. Men come from all walks of life, bored soldiers, tank drivers, mechanics, RAAF pilots, etc. Anyone may apply. After you apply, you will be sent a detailed packet. It tells you what to pack, how to work out, what Selection is like, and other helpful bits of information (somewhat similar to the BUD/S Warning Order). Selection is now held in the Polkobon Ranges and run from Singleton. The course hosts members of the Army trying to join either the Commandos or the SASR. After three weeks candidates who are fit for the Commandos will leave the class behind for their own training, while SASR Candidates still have another three weeks of Selection left. After this they are in for 12 months of continuous training. If you fail one course you are RTU'd (Returned To Unit) on the spot. So don't fail. Courses include: Basic Parachute Training, E&E Training and TQ, Patrol Course, Diving and Boat Handling, Communications, Jungle Training, Explosives and Weapons Training, Language Training, Vehicle Training (Land Rovers, Motorcycles, etc.), and Counterterrorist Training.

The first counterterrorist unit formed by the SASR was actually a unit that already existed. 1 Squadron picked up the CT task in the late 70's until 1978 when the Australian government said they needed a full time CT unit. Again the Army turned to the SASR. This time they created a new "sub-unit" called TAG. TAG, or Tactical Assault Group, is formed from members of the SASR (such as Delta is formed from Army SpecOps personnel). In the beginning each group was broken down by Land (Gauntlet Teams) or Water (Nulla Teams). Each year they would be called a new number (ie Gauntlet 1, 2, and 3). After TAG was formed it was found that they needed to reorganize the men. While one troop was ready to deploy on a moments notice, the two other troops would be off training.

In 1980 the Australian Government insisted on a maritime unit that was able to retake oil rigs in the Bass Strait. This new unit was called OAG (Offshore Installations Group). It is very similar to DevGru and the two train together often. The TAG needed more people to help support this new role. A small group from the Australian Navy's Clearance Divers unit transferred over the SASR to help bolter the ranks for the OAG. Many members of the SASR did not like the idea that the Diver just entered the Regiment without taking Selection, so to make them happy each diver had to undertake SASR Selection and had to become parachute qualified. The unit was later changed to OAT (Offshore Assault Team). As their name states they are responsible for any terrorist activities around the water. They learn to assault ships, oil rigs, small boat, and other potential targets. To join the TAG/OAT one must first be in the SASR. After a soldier has completed two years on a regular Sabre Squadron, he may then put in for TAG/OAT. If excepted he will have to undergo further training. All TAG/OAT operatives are HALO and HAHO qualified. They must be proficient in the ways the TAG/OAT work. The CT Facilities are incredible. Including full scale building mock-ups and a huge Killing Village. Airplanes and buses are also found there. No money is spared on these soldiers. 

The main weapon used today by the SASR is the American M-4 Carbine. The M-16A1 was used during the Borneo and Vietnam conflicts, but was soon replaced by the newer, shorter version. The standard Australian issued Steyr AUG is rarely used (similar to that of the SA-80 and the British SAS). The M-4 can be fitted with an M-203, 40mm grenade launcher. The SASR also favours the Minimi. It is pretty much the same as the American SAW (or Squad Automatic Weapon). It can be fired from a belt, 30 round magazine, or a 200 round drum. The Minimi fires a 5.56mm round, the same round as the M-4. This makes the magazines interchangeable. The M-60, 7.62 light machine gun is also in use. This weapon was first used in Vietnam. It was also the standard light machine gun issued to US Armed Forces at the time. The SASR uses the full range of H&K sub machine guns. From the MP-5 to the G-3. These weapons are mainly used by the TAG and OAG members, although they can be used by others or specific missions. The SASR use a 6x6 extended wheel based Land Rover 110 as their primary vehicle. The truck is a one of kind. The Land Rover can be fitter with a mixture of .50 Machine Guns, Mk19 40mm grenade launcher, or GPMG (General Purpose Machine Gun).

Australia had never felt the power of terrorism until 12:40 AM on February 13 1978 when a powerful bomb exploded in the entrance to the Hilton Hotel in central Sydney. Ten days later, the newly formed 1st squadron of the Australian Special Air Service Regiment, or SASR was designated as Australia's CT force. Soon thereafter, a new unit was formed; the Tactical Assault Group (TAG).

As "B" squadron of the SASR, members of TAG undergo the same selection and training that members of the "regular" SASR have to complete. The selection phase is three weeks long, those that pass undergo nearly a year of training before they can wear the coveted sand-coloured beret. TAG's training facilities include advanced outdoor close quarters battle ranges, an urban CT complex, aircraft mock-ups, and snipers ranges.

An off-shoot of the TAG group is OAT, or the Offshore Assault Team. Initially, twenty divers from the Royal Australian Navy Clearance Diving Teams switched branches to the SASR to help man the new unit. OAT, as the name suggests, specializes in maritime assaults; including ships, ferries, and oil rigs. OAT is considered a separate but equal element of TAG. TAG/OAT operator utilize a large arsenal of weapons in their battle against terrorism. The standard assault rifles are the M-16A2 and F-88 5.56mm rifles (the F-88 is a locally fabricated Steyr). Pistols include the Browning HP 9mm and the SIG Sauer P-228. Although the entire family of MP-5s are used, the favourite is the MP-5K. The Beretta RS 202 shotgun is used, and no less than four different types of sniper rifles are in their inventory; the 7.62 Galil, HK PSG-1, Parker Hale 82, and the Finnish Tikka .223. TAG/OAT operators are HALO/HAHO qualified, and are proficient at heliborne insertions as well. Cross-training with other countries is not uncommon; Australian officers are permanently assigned to both Fort Bragg (home of Delta force) and Little Creek, NAB, home of Navy SEAL counter-terrorist activities.

Defence Signals Directorate

DSD has two principal functions: one is to collect and disseminate foreign signals intelligence (known as Sigint); the other is to provide Information Security (Infosec) products and services to the Australian Government and its Defence Force. DSD's Infosec role is not classified, and various Infosec products and services can be accessed from the 'Information Security' button in the navigation bar at the top of the page. The Directorate's intelligence related activities and operations are classified in the interests of national security.

Royal Australian Air Force Airfield Defence Guards

The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Airfield Defense Guards are the RAAF's ground combat specialists. Distinguished by their blue-grey berets, ADG's (Adgies) are tasked with defending Australian air bases from attacks by enemy special operations forces. These highly trained airmen also provide training in survival techniques, weapons, tactics, and rescue operations for other Royal Australian Air Force personnel. The unit has recently been tasked with providing a new CSAR force to the Air Force.

The history of the RAAF Airfield Defense Guards began during WW2. During the early part of 1942, Australia came under attack by Japanese aircraft. The Australian government responded by ordering the formation of a Defense Pool of trained Air Force infantrymen to fight against the forseen Japanese invasion. Initial training took place under the guidance of the Australian Army and a cadre of instructors drawn from the RAF Regiment. The troops were deployed within Australia and at various locations though out the South Pacific. In 1945 the Defense Pool would be used to form the RAAF Infantry Regiment. The Regiment consisted of two squadrons: No1 and 2 Aerodrome Defense Squadrons (ADS). Each of the units was battalion sized. No.1 Squadron remained in Australia, tasked with defending Australia's strategic assets and acting as a RAAF operational reserve. No 2 ADS participated in a number of amphibious combat landings and overseas deployments. With the Japanese invasion threat minimalized and the war drawing to a close, the RAAF Infantry Regiment was disbanded.

With the outbreak of hostilities in Korea, Australia committed troops to the conflict. Among the first troops to deploy were RAAF aircraft squadrons. Included within each squadron HQ were number of Ground Defense Officers and Aerodrome Defense Instructors. The troops were tasked with planning the defence of the squadron and performing defensive operations around the base perimeter. The troops conducted security and defence operations for the remainder of the war. Later as the intensity of combat in Vietnam increased, Australia was asked to increase its level of commitment. To comply with these new demands, the RAAF deployed a number aircraft to Phan Rang Airbase, Thailand in 1966. The USAF Security Police unit assigned to the base asked that the RAAF help contribute to the base's defence. To meet this new challenge the RAAF consolidated the Aerodrome Defense Officers and Drill Instructor musterings to form the Airfield Defense Guard mustering (ADGs). ADG Flights were deployed to various locations throughout Vietnam and Thailand. They conducted security patrols outside the base perimeter, thus disrupting the Viet Cong ability to conduct stand-off attacks against the bases. ADGs also acted as door gunners on RAAF helicopters. The ADG's operated where ever RAAF units deployed. When the government of South Vietnam's collapsed in 1975, Australia ordered the evacuation of its embassy in Saigon. As their final mission in Vietnam, ADGs were deployed to secure the airfield being used by RAAF C-130's, to evacuate Australian embassy personnel. The "last" evacuation aircraft was severely overloaded and four ADGs remained behind. When the rescue aircraft returned, it found NVA troops at the gates and the ADGs still holding out. These four adgies were the last Australian troops to leave Vietnam.

After the conflict in Vietnam ended four Independent Rifle Flights continued to operate at various locations throughout Australia. In 1983 the RAAF consolidated the flights and used them to re-form No. 2 Airfield Defense Squadron (2AFDS). The new unit consisted of four platoon-sized Rifle Flights and a Support Flight. Rifle Flights are divided into a HQ section and three 10-man sections. The support flight consisted of four sections: Communications, Logistics, Heavy Weapons and Scout Dog. In 1991 The RAAF decided to re-form No. 1 Airfield Defense Squadron (1AFDS). It also formed HQ Airfield Defense Wing. In 1993 2AFDS conducted several training exercises with the Australian SASR, US Army Special Forces A-teams, USN SEALs, and a USAF SOS. Throughout the course of year, 2AFDS continued to refine its counter SOF role. In 1995 2AFDS undertook an intensive training program with a team from the 3/1 SFG (Abn). The squadron also participated in a joint exercise with a USAF Special Tactics team and MC-130 aircraft.

In 1996 the RAAF formed No. 3 Airfield Defense Squadron. In 1997 Cambodia was on the brink of civil war, and the Australian government ordered the evacuation of its nationals. To help safeguard the evacuation, ADGs were once again deployed into harms way. Beginning in 1998 small teams of ADGs began deploying to Kuwait. The teams provide security for RAAF aircraft supporting Operation Deny Flight. In 1999 the administrative head of the ADS, the 1AFDW was placed on notice that they will soon assume duties as the RAAF's CSAR force. RAAF enlistees wishing to become ADGs must first complete the 10 week RAAF recruit training course. Once successfully completed they then attend the 15 week ADG Basic course. Located at the RAAF Security and Fire School (RAAFSFS) RAAF Base, Amberley. During the course trainees receive instruction in communications, weapons and explosives handling, field craft, combat tactics, field operations, combat survival and rescue operations. Trainees are required to live in the field for a period of three or four weeks during training, with only a minimal amount of sleep. Currently the course boost a 60-75% failure rate. All ADGs are require to attend the Combat Survival School (COMSURV) within one year of completing the basic course.

ADGs are equipped with a variety of weapons and vehicles to help them accomplish their mission. Primary they are armed with F88 (Australian version of the Steyr AUG) 5.56mm rifles, US M-16A2/M-203s, and F89 5.56mm LSWs (MINIMI ). The primary sidearm for machine gunners and QRF members is the browning high-power or Glock 19. QRF members are also issued with the US M-79 40mm grenade launcher. Unit snipers are issued British L96 rifles. Heavy weapons include the 66mm LAW, 84 mm Carl Gustov, and 7.62 GPMG. Soon to be added to the armoury are US MK-19 40mm automatic grenade launchers. The Current vehicle on issue is a modified 110 Land Rover ( GunBuggye), but the RAAF announced that the Gun Buggies being used by 2AFDS QRF roles, will soon be replaced by 18 Bushranger armoured vehicles. The unit also maintains a large number of quad runner 4x4s, and Unimog trucks. As part of the RAAF ADGs have access to the complete range of RAAF tactical and strategic aircraft.

Agencies in Australia

Parliament of Australia 
Parliamentary Joint Committee on the Australian Security Intelligence Organization 
Parliamentary Joint Committee on the National Crime Authority (NCA) 
Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 

International Division
Office of National Assessments (ONA) 
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade 
Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS)
International Security Division 
Strategic Policy and Intelligence Branch (SPI) 
Intelligence and Counter-Terrorism Policy Section (ICT) 
Department of Defence 
Strategy and Intelligence (S&I) Program 
Defense Intelligence Organisation (DIO)
Defence Security Branch (DSB) 

Australian Army 
Directorate of Military Intelligence
Australian Intelligence Corps (AIC)
Defence Intelligence Wing (DIW)
Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) 
Australian Defence Force School of Languages (LANGS) 
School of Military Intelligence (SMI) 
Royal Australian Navy 
Directorate of Naval Intelligence
Maritime Intelligence Centre (MIC) 
Naval Communication Station Harold E. Holt (NAVCOMSTAHEH) 
Royal Australian Air Force 
Directorate of Air Force Security & Intelligence
Maritime Patrol Group (MPG) 
Attorney General 
Australian Security Intelligence Organization (ASIO) 
Australian Protective Service (APS)
Australian Security Vetting Service (ASVS)
Protective Security Coordination Centre (PSCC)
Australian Federal Police (AFP)
National Crime Authority (NCA)
Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence (ABCI)
Australian Transaction Reports and Analysis Centre (AUSTRAC)
Office of the Narcotics Control Board
Commonwealth Law Enforcement Board 
Office of Strategic Crime Assessments (OSCA) 

Defence, Press and Broadcasting Committee 
Australian Computer Emergency Response Team (AUSCERT)

Australasian Police Ministers' Council 
Inter-Governmental Committee of the National Crime Authority 
Police Tactical Response Force
New South Wales Police Service
Northern Territory Police Force
Queensland Police Service 
South Australian Police Department
Tasmanian Police 
Victorian Police Department
Western Australian Police Service


New Zealand Agencies

Security Intelligence Service (SIS)

The Security Intelligence Service (SIS) is responsible for gathering intelligence overseas. The Service's principal role is the production of secret intelligence in support of government security, defence, foreign and economic policies. It meets these requirements for intelligence gathering and other tasks through a variety of sources, human and technical, and by liaison with a wide range of foreign intelligence and security services. Limited controlled rights to intercept private communication are available to the SIS under the New Zealand Security Intelligence Service Act 1969.

Government Communications Security Bureau

The mandate of the Government Communications Security Bureau [GCSB] is to satisfy the foreign intelligence requirements of the NZ Government. The focus of its intelligence activities is restricted to foreign intelligence. GCSB collects, assesses, produces reports and disseminates foreign intelligence to meet the national foreign intelligence requirements of the New Zealand Government and its agencies. It also has subsidiary functions which assist its collection capability by signals research identification and analysis of signal sources and devices. Collection is made from electronic communication transmitted through satellite, radio waves or other open means. GCSB does not intercept private or other communication transmitted by telephone land lines. GCSB operates a satellite monitoring station at Waihopai near Blenheim and a radio receiving station at Tangimoana near Foxton. These are both capable of receiving and collecting foreign intelligence. The equipment is equally capable of receiving signals transmitted by radio and satellite which do not include foreign intelligence and which are domestic concerning and involving NZ citizens.

Government initiatives announced in 1997 to enhance the foreign signals intelligence collection capability of the GCSB include constructing a second antenna at Waihopai and to extend the authority of the GCSB to collect foreign voice communications. The latter was attended to by the making of the Crimes (Exemption of Listening Device) Order 1997. That exempted the GCSB's station at Waihopai from the provisions of Part IX.A of the Crimes Act 1961 for the purpose only of intercepting foreign voice communications containing foreign intelligence. Through the UK-USA agreements GCSB has links with the National Security Agency US, Communications Security Establishment Canada, Defence Signals Directorate Australia and the Government Communications Headquarters United Kingdom.


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